Transformation – The misuse, possession or destruction of someone else`s personal property. Written pleadings – Written observations of the parties in a civil case concerning their positions. In federal courts, the most important pleadings are the complaint and the response. Evidence of opinion – evidence that consists of what a witness believes or infers with respect to contentious facts, as opposed to a witness` personal knowledge of a fact. Except in the case of experts, the admissibility of expert opinions is limited. The courts for the first hearing of questions of fact, unlike the courts of appeal. In criminal law, the constitutional guarantee guarantee guarantees that an accused receives a fair and impartial trial. In civil law, the legal rights of a person who is confronted with an adverse act that threatens freedom or property. Quorum – A sufficient number of members of a governing body meeting at a given time and place to permit the formal action or deliberation of such a governing body. The person to whom an attachment is served, usually a debtor of the defendant in the action. Instructions from a judge to the jury before it begins to deliberate on the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules it must apply. Due diligence – With respect to the acquisition or merger of a company, the financial, physical and legal condition of a company is reviewed prior to the closing of the transaction. Malicious prosecution – A claim for recovery of damages suffered by a person, property or reputation as a result of previous civil or criminal proceedings that have been pursued or prosecuted maliciously and without probable cause.

In U.S. law, the right of the state to an estate for which there is no one legally qualified to inherit or claim the estate. The declaration of legal rights that must be given to a person arrested or suspected of a criminal offense before he can be questioned by judicial officers. Property promised as collateral for the satisfaction of a debt. Dissolution – The process by which a corporation, partnership or other legal entity is legally terminated. A federal judge who, after reaching the required age and duration of judicial experience, assumes the status of a senior judge, thereby creating a vacancy among the active judges of a court. A high-ranking judge retains the function of judge and can reduce his workload by up to 75%, but many opt for a greater number of cases. Negotiable instrument – A document, such as a cheque, note or invoice, that proves reasonable financial liability or a promise from one person to another that can be transferred from one person to another for review. any act that embarrasses, hinders or hinders the court or reduces the authority or dignity of the court; may result in civil or criminal penalties. There are two types of contempt; directly and indirectly. Direct contempt is that committed in the immediate presence of the court; and indirectly is the term used primarily in connection with the failure or refusal to comply with a legal order. Company – A legally identifiable entity with certain legal rights that can be held legally liable, such as: an individual, partnership, company or government agency.

Risk management – An affirmative defence in a personal injury case, which means that a person cannot recover from an injury if they voluntarily expose themselves to a known and estimated danger. Declaratory judgment – Binding judicial determination of the rights of the parties in a dispute in which there are doubts about the legal rights or status of the parties. Written notification by an official given to a person or published in accordance with legal requirements that he or she has been designated as a party to a dispute or has been charged with a criminal offence. The procedure consists of a summons to appear, a summons or an arrest warrant accompanied by a copy of the complaint or other procedural acts. A presumption of fact, normally rebuttable, that results from a rule of law that requires that fact be based on another fact or group of facts established or otherwise established in the remedy. Even if individuals or groups engage in activities that are not considered public tasks, the state could be held liable if it exercises “effective control” over the individual or group. A State can exercise effective control when it commands, commands or directs the actions of a person or group.